Timeline of Segregation in Education

  • South Carolina Passes The Negro Act of 1740 

    On May 10th 1740, the “Bill for the better ordering and governing of Nergoes and other slaves in this province” also known as the Negro Act was passed (Madeo, 2019). Under this Act African Americans were not allowed to grow their own food, learn how to read or also learn how to write. African Americans were not also allowed to move freely and go where they wanted to go. African Americans also can not assemble in groups or earn their own money (Madeo, 2019). South Carolina put this act into place after an unsuccessful Stono Rebellion in 1739, where 50 enslaved Africans Americans were resisting bondage, which brought up an uprising that killed close to 20-25 white people (Madeo, 2019).  After the rebellion there was a racial caste and property system that was put into place. Where there had to be one white person for every 10 enslaved people. The Negro Act placed all enslaved Africans human chattel and took away all forms of civil rights. 

  • 1849: Roberts v. The City of Boston 

    The actions that led to the Roberts v. The City of Boston, in the late 1700’s slavery was abolished in Massachusetts. And coming from this Boston schools were not segregated (Brown, 2018). But African American students felt like they were at a disadvantage, because white teachers and students in the integrated schools harassed and mistreated African American students. Parents at the time tried to petition for a special school for their kids, but it was denied by the state legislature. The first segregated school for African American children was privately established in 1798 (Brown, 2018). Two years later African American parents brought up the concerns about them paying taxes to support a school that their children could not even attend. Soon the African American parents started the petition for segregated schools to be closed down, they petitioned between the years 1845-1848 (Brown, 2018). The final effort was undertaken in 1849 under the legal leadership of attorneys Charles Sumner, who went on to become a United States Senator, and Robert Morris, an African American activist who shared the title abolitionist with his colleagues. In their petition to the Massachusetts Supreme Court, attorneys for the African American parents outlined the circumstances believed to be unlawful. The Roberts case was unsuccessful because authorities reasoned that special provisions had been made for “colored” students to have a school. In April 1855 a bill was presented and passed by the Massachusetts legislature. This action provided that no distinction based on color, race or religion should be made for any student applying for admission to any public school in the state (Brown, 2018).

    Black Then | Looking Black On Today In 1849, Roberts v. The City of Boston  Began

  • 1868- The Fourteenth Amendment

    The 14th Amendment was passed on July 18, 1868. Three year prior to that the Civil War had ended. After the Civil War ended some southern states began actively passing laws that restrict the rights of former slaves (Tulane, 2017). The way that Congress responded was with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment has 5 sections, the first section introduces citizenship for all people that were born in the country or naturalized. The first section also covers the limitations of state laws, in which they cannot supersede federal laws that governs the citizens  (Tulane, 2017). The 14th Amendment was designed to grant citizenship rights to African-Americans, and it states that citizenship cannot be taken from anyone unless someone gives it up or commits perjury during the naturalization process. The 14th Amendment removed the ⅗ law from the Constitution, giving freed slaves full weight as citizens. The only adult male citizens who were denied the right to vote were those convicted of crimes.

  • 1875- The Civil Rights Act of 1875

    Radical Republican senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts introduced the Civil Rights Act in 1870 as an amendment. The bill guaranteed all citizens, regardless of color, access to accommodations, theatres, public schools, churches, and cemeteries. The bill also further stopped the barring of any person from jury service on account of race, and provided that all lawsuits brought under the new law would be tried in federal, not state, courts (U.S Senate, 2020). When Congress began to explain the Reconstruction amendments which are the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments. These three amendments did limit the power of the States, but the amendments did extend power of the General Government. But the one thing that lawmakers could not agree on was how far the power of the federal government would extend  (U.S Senate, 2020). Even though the bill did get passed, it dropped one component about the bill and that component was the part in the bill that would prohibit segregation in public schools.

    Cincinnati Mostly Ignored the Civil Rights Act of 1875 - Cincinnati Magazine
  • 1879- U.S Cavalry Captain Richard Henry Pratt opened boarding school 

    The boarding school cavalry captain Pratt opened is not the boarding schools that we think about today. These boarding schools were Carlisle Indian Industrial School that was backed with government funding (Little, 2018). The Native American boarding schools were a method of forced assimilation.  The main goal of these schools were to make Native Americans more like the white Anglo-Americans, who took over their land. Part of this school’s system was to take children away from their families and tribes. At the boarding schools the staff forced Indigenous students to cut their hair and gave them new names. When the children were attending this school they were not allowed to speak their Native language (Little, 2018). Once the children returned home they had a hard time connecting with their families and other members in their tribe. The main reason for this comes from when the children were at school they were taught that speaking their language or practicing their religion was wrong. 

  • 1890- Louisiana Separate Car Act  

    The separate car act was put into place as “an act to promote comfort of passengers” requiring that all that of the railway companies carrying passengers on their trains, in the State of Louisiana to provide separate but equal accommodations for the white and people of color (Railroads, 2019). By providing separate coaches or compartments so as to secure separate accommodations; defining the duties of the officers of such railways. Directing them to assign passengers to the coaches or compartment set aside for the use of the race to which such passengers belong. The train company had the ability to  authorize them to refuse to carry on their train such passengers may refuse to occupy the coaches or compartments to which he or she is assigned (Railroads, 2019). In the first section of this act it states, “No person or persons, shall be permitted to occupy seats in coaches, other than the ones assigned to them on account of the race they belong to” (Railroads, 2019).

    Louisiana Separate Car Act, 1890 · Separate not Equal: Plessy v. Ferguson's  Influence on Modern Discrimination · The Making of the Modern U.S.

  • 1896- Plessy v. Ferguson

     Plessy v. The Ferguson Case came for the Louisiana Separate Car act that was passed in 1890. Homer Adolph Plessy, who is mixed-raced and  agreed to be the plaintiff in this case and to test the law’s constitutionality. He described himself as ⅞ Caucasian and ⅛ African blood (History, 2009). Homer Plessy refused to sit in a car for Black people. Rejecting Plessy’s argument that his constitutional rights were violated, the Supreme Court ruled that a law that “implies merely a legal distinction” between white people and Black people was not unconstitutional. As a result, restrictive Jim Crow legislation and separate public accommodations based on race became commonplace (History, 2009). The Plessy v. Ferguson’s verdict enshrined the doctrine of “separate but equal” as a constitutional justification for segregation, ensuring the survival of the Jim Crow South for the next half-century. Railroads was one of the segregated public facilities, other places included buses, hotels, theaters, swimming pools, and schools. 

    Plessy v. Ferguson for APUSH | Simple, Easy, Direct

  • 1899- Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County

    In this Supreme Court Case it was ruled that the state of Georgia did not violate any constitutional rights when they decided to close down high-school services for 60 African Americans students in order to provide elementary education for 300 African American students (Mahon, 2008).  In 1880 the board of education in Richmond county, Georgia, established Ware High School for African American students and charged a yearly tuition of $10. Several years later a special committee recommended that for economic reasons the high school be closed and converted into four elementary schools. The board agreed, asserting that the high-school students could obtain an education at the Haines Industrial School, the Walker Baptist Institute (Mahon, 2008). African American parents, including J.W. Cumming objected to the closing of Ware. The state’s high court then reversed in favor of the board, removing the injunction and dismissing the parents’ petition (Mahon, 2008). The court pointed out that the affected secondary-school students could still have received an education in private schools for tuition that was no greater than they already were paying at Ware High School. Absent a clear violation of rights, the court did not think that federal authorities had the authority to interfere in the operation of the schools. 

    Marker Monday: Ware High School: Civil Rights Milestone – Georgia  Historical Society

  • 1917- The Silent Protest

    A group between 8,000-10,000 African American men, women and children marched through the streets of midtown Manhattan in what is now known as the first Civil Right Protests in American History. The only sound that was heard was the sound of drums. The protestors marched in silence mourning those who have been killed in a wave of anti-African American violence that had impacted the nation (Maranzani, 2017). In the year preceding the march, two notorious lynching attacks had made headlines; one in Waco, Texas, which saw 10,000 people gather to watch a Black man hung, and another in Tennessee that drew a crowd of 5,000. An NAACP flyer advertising the march stated the group’s aims. “We march because we want our children to live in a better land and enjoy fairer conditions than have fallen to our lot” (Maranzani, 2017).

  •  Dec. 9, 1952- May 17, 1954- Brown v. Board of Education

    In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that racially segregated public facilities were legal, so long as the facilities for Black people and whites were equal. After that the ruling constitutionally sanctioned laws barring African Americans from sharing the same buses, schools and other public facilities as whites—known as Jim Crow Laws—and established the “separate but equal” doctrine that would stand for the next six decades (History, 2021). In his lawsuit, Brown claimed that schools for Black children were not equal to the white schools, and that segregation violated the so-called “equal protection clause” of the 14th Amendment, which holds that no state can “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” When Brown’s case to the Supreme Court there were already four other cases related to school segregation first came before the Supreme Court in 1952, the Court combined them into a single case under the name Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (History, 2021). In the decision, issued on May 17, 1954, Warren wrote that “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place,” as segregated schools are “inherently unequal.” As a result, the Court ruled that the plaintiffs were being “deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment.”

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka | Definition, Facts, & Significance |  Britannica

  • 1954- Bolling v. Sharpe 

    In the case of Bolling v. Sharpe challenged the validity of segregation in public schools of the District of Columbia. The ones who were petitioning this case were the youth of the African-American community. They allege that such segregation deprives them of due process of law under the 15th Amendment. They were refused admission to a public school attended by white children solely because of their race. They sought the aid of the District Court for the District of Columbia in obtaining admission (Cornell, 2020). At first the court dismissed their complaint. Then the courts granted them to be able to have a written document because of judgment in the Court of Appeals because of the importance of the constitutional question presented. The legal problem in the District of Columbia was different from other states, because it does have the equal protection clause (Cornell, 2020). This Court declared the principle ‘that the constitution of the United States, in its present form, forbids, so far as civil and political rights are concerned, discrimination by the general government, or by the states, against any citizen because of their race.

  • 1956- Clinton High School

    Before 1956, black high school students were bused out of the county to Knoxville since no black segregated high school existed in Anderson County. The students were frustrated that they had to take a long bus ride to get to school everyday. Local African Americans filed a lawsuit in 1950, but it was appealed. After the Court passed the Brown decision in 1954,  a local judge ordered the school to accept black students by the fall of 1956. The school administrators prepared to comply (Tennessee, 2018). Twelve African American students were registered without incident. But John Kasper, a vocal segregationist from Washington D.C., came to Clinton to stir up opposition to the integration. Kasper called for rallies and protests against the African American students that were Clinton High School. In August 1956, the black students walked into Clinton High School. They were the first African Americans in the South to attend a previously all-white public school (Tennessee, 2018).

  • 1957- Eisenhower Sent the 101st Airborne to Little Rock to Protect Little Rock Nine 

    The school board of Little Rock, Arkansas, voted to desegregate their high schools starting in 1957, which led to a crisis that catapulted the state’s governor into a showdown with the president of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower. In 1957, Arkansas had integrated several state universities and smaller school districts, but it was when Little Rock Nine decided to attend the all-white Central High School (Clark, 2020). September 4, when the black students, historically known as the Little Rock Nine, faced a vicious throng outside Central, they were denied entry by armed troops in the Arkansas National Guard. The intense stand-off continued over several weeks as the National Guard continued to surround the school in defiance of Judge Davies’s ruling. The governor removed the National Guard troops from Central and left security to the local police. As the Little Rock Nine made another attempt to enter on September 23, they had to use a side entrance because a belligerent mob of 1,000 had formed outside. When a riot erupted, the police had to evacuate the black students for their safety (Clark, 2020).  September 23, President Eisenhower issued Executive Order 10730, which put the Arkansas National Guard under federal authority, and sent 1,000 U.S. Army troops from the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock, to maintain order as Central High School desegregated.

  • Oct. 25, 1958- Apr. 18, 1959- Youth March for Integrated Schools 

    In August 1958 a small committee headed by labor leader A. Philip Randolph began organizing the first Youth March for Integrated Schools, to take place on 25 October 1958. One of the main purpose of the march was to  give people in the North an opportunity to show their solidarity with Negro children in the South who have become the first line of defense in the struggle for integrated schools (Stanford, 2019). A diverse group of leaders planned the march; the six honorary chairmen involved in the marches both years were King, Randolph, Roy Wilkins, Ruth Bunche, Jackie Robinson, and Daisy Bates. On the day of the 1958 march, an integrated crowd of 10,000 marched down Constitution Avenue in Washington, D.C., to the Lincoln Memorial. There, Coretta Scott King delivered a speech on behalf of her husband (Stanford, 2019). On 18 April 1959, an estimated 26,000 participants marched down the National Mall to a program at the Sylvan Theatre, where speeches were given by King, Randolph, Wilkins, and Charles Zimmerman, chairman of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations Civil Rights Committee.

  • 1959- The Closing of Prince Edward County’s Schools

    In 1959 Virginia’s school-closing law was ruled unconstitutional. The General Assembly repealed the compulsory school attendance law and gave the state’s counties and cities the option of operating public schools. Most localities, some after legal disputes, moved to integrate their school systems. That was not the case in Prince Edward County (Virginia, 2018). May 1, 1959, to integrate its schools, the county instead closed its entire public school system. Officials in Prince Edward then created private schools to educate the county’s white children. Prince Edward Academy, in particular, became the prototype for all-white private schools formed to protest school integration. Some African American students received schooling with relatives in nearby communities or at makeshift schools in the basement of churches. Other African American students traveled out of the state to attend school with the support of groups (Virginia, 2018).  In February of President John F. Kennedy referred to what was going on in a speech to Congress about civil rights, but Prince Edward County did not reopen its public schools on an integrated basis until 1964. When the U.S Supreme Court outlawed Virginia’s tuition grants to private education.

  •  The Civil Rights Act of 1964

    In the 1960’s people who knew about the potential about the equal protection of the laws and expected the president, Congress, and the courts to fulfill their end of what they promised what was going to happen as they stated in the 14th Amendment. In June of 1964 President John F. Kennedy asked Congress for a comprehensive civil rights bill, because of the mass resistance that was coming from desegregation (U.S Department, 2019). After Kennedy’s assassination in November, President Lyndon Johnson pressed hard, with the support of Roy Wilkins and Clarence Mitchell, to secure the bill’s passage the following year. In 1964, Congress passed Public Law. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Provisions of this civil rights act forbade discrimination on the basis of sex, as well as, race in hiring, promoting, and firing. The Act prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and federally funded programs (U.S Department, 2019). Along with that it also strengthened the enforcement of voting rights and the desegregation of schools.

  • 1971- Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education

    On April 20, 1971, the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously upheld busing programs that aimed to speed up the racial integration of public schools in the United States.In 1954 the Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. But because of racially segregated housing patterns and resistance by local leaders, many schools remained as segregated in the late 1960s as they were at the time of the Brown decision (Britannica, 2020). In Charlotte, North Carolin the mid-1960s less than 5 percent of African American children attended integrated schools. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), on behalf of Vera and Darius Swann, the parents of a six-year-old child, sued the Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district to allow their son to attend Seversville Elementary School (Britannica, 2020). The federal district judge in the case ruled in favor of the Swanns and oversaw the implementation of a busing strategy that integrated the district’s schools.

  •  1971- Schools in Denver were intentionally segregating Mexican and Black students from the white students

    This lawsuit was filed by the parents for their minor children who were attending Denver Public Schools. To take action of what was happening in the schools, which was an alleged segregated condition of certain Denver schools and the effects of that condition. In the lawsuit it talks about how the schools were purposely maintained inferior schools by their method of allocation to the schools, and such practice has caused those schools to be substantially inferior to other schools within the district with predominantly Anglo students (US Law, 2018). They also said that the schools denied minority students an equal educational opportunity in violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. There are 92 elementary schools, 16 junior high schools, and 9 senior high schools.  There has never been a law in Colorado requiring separate educational facilities for different races. The policy to which the School Board has consistently adhered is the neighborhood school plan (US Law, 2018). The goal is a centrally located school which children living within the boundary lines must attend. Although the Board has no written policy governing the setting of attendance boundaries, several factors have apparently been employed.

  • 1974-  Lau v. Nichols: Developing Programs for English Language Learners

    This lawsuit comes from The failure of the San Francisco school system to provide English language instruction to approximately 1,800 students of Chinese ancestry who do not speak English, or to provide them with other adequate instructional procedures, denies them a meaningful opportunity to participate in the public educational program and thus violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which bans discrimination based on the ground of race, color, or national origin (Department of Education, 2020). Teaching English to the students of Chinese ancestry who do not speak the language is one choice. Giving instructions to this group in Chinese is another. There may be others. Petitioners ask only that the Board of Education be directed to apply its expertise to the problem and rectify the situation (Department of Education, 2020). The District Court denied relief. The Court of Appeals reasoned that “every student brings to the starting line of his educational career different advantages and disadvantages caused in part by social, economic and cultural background, created and continued completely apart from any contribution by the school system.

  • 1977- Missouri v. Jenkins

    In 1977, the Kansas City, Missouri, School District (KCMD), the school board, and the children of two school board members brought suit in the United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri against the state of Missouri and various suburban school districts or allegedly causing and perpetuating racial segregation in the schools of the city’s metropolitan area (LexisNexis, 2018). The District Court determined that the state and the city district had operated a segregated school system within the city district. It determined that segregation had caused a systemwide reduction in student achievement in the city district’s schools and ordered a wide range of remedial “quality education” programs for all students in the city district’s schools (LexisNexis, 2018). The Supreme Court found that the District Court necessarily has discretion to fashion a remedy for a school district unconstitutionally segregated in law, such remedial power is not unlimited and may not be extended to purposes beyond the elimination of racial discrimination in public schools.

  • 1978- University of California v Bakke

    Bakke decision, formally Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, ruling in which, on June 28, 1978, the U.S. The Supreme Court declared affirmative action constitutional but invalidated the use of racial quotas (Britannica, 2019). The University of California, Davis, as part of the university’s affirmative action program, had reserved 16 percent of its admission places for minority applicants. Allan Bakke, a white California man who had twice unsuccessfully applied for admission to the medical school, filed suit against the universBakke charged that he had suffered unfair “reverse discrimination” on the basis of race, which he argued was contrary to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment (Britannica, 2019). Several U.S. states prohibited affirmative action programs based on race.

  • 1996- Resegregated Neighborhood Schools in Oklahoma City Fail to Meet District Promises of Achievement and Equity

    Elementary schools in Oklahoma City, after 13 years of busing for integration, have not led to the gains in achievement, parent involvement, and equity the school district had claimed (News Editor, 2020).  The Supreme Court based its decision on a lower court’s findings that the re-segregated neighborhood elementary schools in Oklahoma City had increased achievement, parent and community involvement, while maintaining equity and integration in the city’s schools. These “findings” by the lower court about the purported benefits of neighborhood schools were based entirely on the claims of Oklahoma City School District officials(News Editor, 2020). Segregation has not decreased in Oklahoma City’s schools, as the lower court judge predicted would occur due to projected increase in neighborhood integration. The proportion of black students in the majority-black elementary schools has remained consistently high, at 96.7 percent black (as compared with 98.8 percent black in 1985, the first year the district returned to segregated neighborhood elementary schools).The Equity Committee, established as the monitoring authority over equity-related issues in the resegregated neighborhood schools, had disbanded by the time both the lower court and the Supreme Court were making their decision to allow the schools to return to segregation.

  • 1999- Desegregation and Resegregation of Charlotte’s Schools

    The success of the integration program lasted for almost three decades, until William Capacchione, a white parent, sued the school district because he believed his daughter was not admitted into a local magnet school because of her race (Smith, 2016). But in 1999 Federal District Court Judge Robert Potter—who as a private citizen had been active in the anti-busing movement of the nineteen-sixties—ordered the district to stop using race in pupil assignments. Under the new “Family Choice Plan,” students were largely made to attend the schools in their neighborhood. But most neighborhoods in Charlotte are deeply segregated and racially homogenous communities, as a result of decades of housing segregation, and so schools that were once integrated and high-achieving soon became stratified by race and income (Smith, 2016).The social science on the impact of desegregation is clear. Researchers have consistently found that students in integrated schools—irrespective of ethnicity, race, or social class—are more likely to make academic gains in mathematics, reading, and often science than they are in segregated ones.

  • 2000’s- School are More Segregated Than When They Were in the 1970’s 

    judicial-supervised desegregation by the district, Sanetra’s school was 68 percent black. Now it is almost entirely black, and the many white pupils who once rode in on yellow buses number one in a hundred (Winter, 2003).Dozens of Charlotte schools have basically changed color in the months since the appeals court lifted the desegregation order. In 2003, we are now seeing black students now typically go to schools where fewer than 31 percent of their classmates are white, the new Harvard study found. That is less contact than in 1970, a year before the Supreme Court authorized the busing that became a primary way of integrating schools (Winter, 2003). Latino students, who have rarely been a focus of desegregation efforts, now attend schools where whites account for only 29 percent of all students, compared with 45 percent three decades ago. 

  • 2007- Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1.

    In the Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District lawsuit  five Supreme Court justices rejected voluntary desegregation plans in Seattle and Louisville, finding it unconstitutional for school districts to rely on the race of individual students when making student assignment decisions (Cohen, 2017). Four justices voted broadly against race-conscious integration plans, and four voted broadly in favor of them. In the middle was Justice Anthony Kennedy, who agreed with Justice Roberts in certain respects. Kennedy’s concurring opinion that most dramatically shapes our modern legal landscape today on questions regarding school segregation. Kennedy agreed that Seattle’s and Louisville’s race-based integration plans were unconstitutional (Cohen, 2017). Kennedy even endorsed specific strategies that he felt could be used to foster school diversity-like drawing attendance zones that take into consideration the demographics of students’ neighborhoods, and “allocating resources for special programs” such as magnet schools.

  • Works Cited

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    Britannica, N/A. “Bakke Decision.” Britannica, 2019, https://www.britannica.com/event/Bakke-decision6. Accessed 09 May 2021.

    Brown, Foundation. “Prelude to Brown – 1849: Roberts v. The City of Boston.” Brown Foundation, 2018, https://brownvboard.org/content/prelude-brown-1849-roberts-v-city-boston. Accessed 3 May 2021.

    Clark, Alexis. “Why Eisenhower Sent the 101st Airborne to Little Rock After Brown v. Board.” History, 8 April 2020, https://www.history.com/news/little-rock-nine-brown-v-board-eisenhower-101-airborne. Accessed 9 May 2021.

    Cohn, Rachel. “‘Parents Involved,’ A Decade Later.” The American Prospect, 2017, https://prospect.org/justice/parents-involved-decade-later/. Accessed 10 May 2021.

    Cornell, N/A. “BOLLING et al. v. SHARPE et al.” Cornell Law School, 2020, https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/347/497. Accessed 08 May 2021.

    Department of Education. “Developing Programs for English Language Learners: Lau v. Nichols.” U.S. Department of Education, 2020, https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/ell/lau.html. Accessed 10 May 2021.

    History, Editors. “Brown v. Board of Education.” History, 2021, https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka. Accessed 08 May 2021.

    History, Editors. “Plessy v. Ferguson.” History, 2009, https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/plessy-v-ferguson. Accessed 8 May 2021.

    LexisNexis. “Law School Case Brief.” LexisNexis, 2018, https://www.lexisnexis.com/community/casebrief/p/casebrief-missouri-v-jenkins. Accessed 10 May 2021.

    Little, Becky. “Government Boarding Schools Once Separated Native American Children From Families.” History, 1 November 2018, https://www.history.com/news/government-boarding-schools-separated-native-american-children-families. Accessed 2 May 2021.

    Madeo, N/A. “May 10, 1740 | South Carolina Passes Negro Act of 1740; Codifying White Supremacy.” A History of Racial Injustice, 2019, https://calendar.eji.org/racial-injustice/may/10. Accessed 10 June 2021.

    Mahon, Patrick. “Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County.” Britannica, 2008, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Cumming-v-Board-of-Education-of-Richmond-County. Accessed 8 May 2021.

    Maranzani, Barbara. “The ‘Silent’ Protest That Kick-Started the Civil Rights Movement.” History, 2017, https://www.history.com/news/the-silent-protest-that-kick-started-the-civil-rights-movement. Accessed 08 May 2021.

    News Editor. “Study Finds Resegregated Neighborhood Schools in Oklahoma City Fail to Meet District Promises of Achievement and Equity.” Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2019, https://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/96/09/study-finds-resegregated-neighborhood-schools-oklahoma-city-fail-meet-district-promises. Accessed 10 May 2021.

    Railroads, N/A. “The Louisiana Railway Accommodations Act.” Railroads and the Making of Modern America, 2019, https://railroads.unl.edu/documents/view_document.php?id=rail.gen.0060. Accessed 8 May 2021.

    Smith, Clint. “The Desegregation and Resegregation of Charlotte’s Schools.” The New Yorker, 3 October 2016, https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/the-desegregation-and-resegregation-of-charlottes-schools. Accessed 10 May 2021.

    Stanford, N/A. “Youth March for Integrated Schools.” Stanford University, 2019, https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/youth-march-integrated-schools. Accessed 09 May 2021.

    Tennessee, N/A. “Clinton High School.” Tennessee 4 me, 2018, http://www.tn4me.org/article.cfm/a_id/111/minor_id/26/major_id/11/era_id/8. Accessed 08 May 2021.

    Tulane, Law School. “History of Law: The Fourteenth Amendment.” Tulane Law School, 09 July 2017, https://online.law.tulane.edu/articles/history-of-law-the-fourteenth-amendment#:%7E:text=The%20Civil%20War%20ended%20on%20May%209%2C%201865.&text=Some%20southern%20states%20began%20actively,well%20as%20protect%20civil%20rights. Accessed 8 May 2021.

    U.S, Senate. “U.S. Senate: Landmark Legislation: Civil Rights Act of 1875.” United States Senate, 2020, https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/CivilRightsAct1875.htm. Accessed 8 May 2021.

    U.S Department, N/A. “Legal Highlight: The Civil Rights Act of 1964.” U.S Department of Labor, 2019, https://www.dol.gov/agencies/oasam/civil-rights-center/statutes/civil-rights-act-of-1964#:~:text=The%20Civil%20Rights%20Act%20of%201964%20prohibits%20discrimination%20on%20the,hiring%2C%20promoting%2C%20and%20firing. Accessed 09 May 2021.

    US Law, N/A. “Wilfred Keyes et al., Plaintiffs-appellees, v. School District No. 1, Denver, Colorado.” Justia, 2018, https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F2/445/990/17006/. Accessed 10 May 2021.

    Virginia, N/A. “The Closing of Prince Edward County’s Schools.” Virginia Museum of History and Culture, 2018, https://virginiahistory.org/learn/historical-book/chapter/closing-prince-edward-countys-schools. Accessed 09 May 2021.Winter, Greg. “Schools Resegregate, Study Finds.” The New York Times, 2003, https://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/21/us/schools-resegregate-study-finds.html. Accessed 10 May 2021.

Current Connection- 3

In the Current Connection for this week we had the reading “The Banking Concept of Education” By Paulo Freire. In the reading Freire talks about how Education is an act of depositing, where the students are the depositories and the teacher is the despitor. Along with that the teacher is the one to issue communiques and makes deposits in which the students patiently receive, memorize, and repeat. This is the backing concept of education, it is a concept in which the action of learning only goes as far as the students receiving, filing and storing the information and that is as far it goes the Banking Model of Education. There are 10 big concepts that are outlined in the Banking Model of Education and they are: the teachers teaches and the students are taught, the teacher knows everything and the students know nothing, the teacher thinks and the students are thought about, the teacher talks and the students listen- meekly, the teacher disciplines and the students are disciplined, the teacher chooses and enforce their choice and the students comply. The teacher acts and the students have the illusion of acting through the action of the teacher, the teacher chooses the program content, and the student adapt to it, the teacher confuses the authority of knowledge, with his or her own professional authority, which she/he sets in opposition to the freedom of the students, and the teacher is the subject of the learning process, while the pupils are mere objects. 

Out of the 10 concepts that were listed above, I can fully say that I do not agree with most of the concepts that are on the list. Education should not be something that is only one-way. That is something that is not in the best interest of the students. Most students can not learn when they are only being told something and just sitting there and listening. The lesson has to be engaging to the student and the students have to be able to put their input on the lesson. Also I do not think that it is right that the teacher is the only one that knows everything when it comes to the subject. Everyday we are learning something new, whether where we get the source from we are always learning something new. I also do not agree with the last concept. I think that there should not be objects mentioned when talking about students, because our students are people and they have value, so it is not right to view them as objects. 

The article that I did my current connection on is “The Banking Model of Education” by Chris Drew. In this article Drew talks about how the Banking Model sees students as containers in which knowledge is deposited by teachers. That the teachers know everything while students are ignorant, teachers act while students observe, and the teacher claims authority to oppress students. Drew also talks about how knowledge transmission hurts students. One example of this is: Teacher Narration: narrates facts to students for them to memorize. And the Ignorance of Prior Knowledge: any prior knowledge that the students knew before is completely ignored by the teacher, who doesn’t care about the students’ beliefs or opinions. 

One of the main points that Drew makes is that teachers should aim to be co-Leaders. And how the role of the teacher should change and that teacher should be learning with the students. In Education we should be focusing on “Problem Posing Education” and in this way of Education teachers should not tell students facts but instead pose problems and ask the students to use their intelligence to solve the problems. Another point that Drew made was that learning should be practical, and students should learn by engaging with the world around them. Which is something that I completely agree with, students should be able to engage with the lesson and with the world around them. 

Drew also talks about the advantages and disadvantages. The advantages being teacher control, can get a better control on poorly behaved classrooms. Direct Instruction is necessary, sometimes telling students “the way it is” is necessary. Students appreciate structure, even though students learn differently, some students do appreciate getting information straight and clear. The disadvantages to this way of teaching being lack of critical thinking, students are denied the opportunity to think and lack of creativity: Denied the opportunity to think for themselves. Won’t develop creative thinking and problem solving skills. The third disadvantage is that power imbalances are made, power stays in the hands of the teacher and students are giving no chance to question authority.

Current Connection #4

In the reading for this week, we had the reading “ The School-to-Prison Pipeline: A Critical Review of the Punitive Paradigm Shift” by Christopher Mallett. The reading talked about the prison-to-pipeline system. In the reading  Mallett talks about how no two schools are exactly alike (nor are juvenile courts), and their anti-violence policies thus differentiate accordingly. Disciplinary implementation, enforcement procedures, and utilization are different according to school size, location, and demographic makeup. He also talks about the environment that schools are creating and how it’s creating an environment of social control and fear that is more prison-like in efforts to maintain safety. Mallett also talks about the criminalization of Education and he brings up Subsequent amendments to the Gun-Free Schools Act and state laws have broadened the focus from firearms to other types of weapons and as well as non-weapon possession problems, use of alcohol/drugs and tobacco, fighting, and disobedience of school rules. One of the other things that comes along with this is that policy makers, practitioners, and involved parties do not set forth to harm children or adolescents either in school or juvenile justice settings. 

But thinking back to schools, there are not going to be two schools that are going to be the same. Since that the anti-violence policies are not going to be the same. Disciplinary implementation, enforcement procedures, and utilization are different according to school size, location, and demographic makeup.  Mallett also talks about how anti-violence policies are practiced more frequently both in the southern and western states, in schools with higher minority student populations, and in schools with higher enrollments in free or reduced price lunch programs and these are the schools characteristics are often inter-related. 

Mallett also talks about where Zero Tolerance Policies came from. And ‘‘zero tolerance’’ was nationally recognized and used during the Reagan Administration’s war on drugs in the mid-1980s, encapsulating both a violent drug trade occurring across many U.S. cities. In 1986, the war on drugs s initiative and policy focus was imported to the public. And so the Drug Free Schools Act, a strict prohibition against drugs or alcohol possession went into effect. 

For my current connection for this week I did the reading, “Stop the School-to-Prison Pipeline” by The Editors of Rethinking Schools. The reading starts off with a story about Robert who is an 11-year-old boy who accidentally  brought a pocket knife to school, and it fell out of his pocket during gym, and they sent him to the office and then within minutes he was taken into custody and was sent to a disciplinary school. Which in no way is the right thing to do in that situation. When it comes to how to handle the situation, the main thing that I would have done was talk it through with the student. The next topic that the reading talked about was Mass Incarceration, and in this section it explains the growth of the school-to-prison pipeline is part of a larger crisis. Since 1970, the U.S. prison population has exploded from about 325,000 people to more than 2 million today. And then the effects after people come out of jail. Once released, former prisoners are caught in a web of laws and regulations that make it difficult or impossible to secure jobs, education, housing, and public assistance.

The Editors of Rethinking Schools also talked about their curriculum that they have dont on the past and how Social justice educators have developed strong class activities teaching the Civil Rights Movement. But few of them teach regularly about the racial realities of the current criminal justice system. And how textbooks just completely ignore the topic. Mass incarceration and the school-to-prison pipeline are among the primary forms that racial oppression currently takes in the United States. When talking about the movement to make change happen the movement to end the school-to-prison pipeline and the movement to defend and transform public education are too often separate. This must be one movement. that encompasses both an end to the school-to-prison pipeline and the fight to save and transform public education. ANd as educators, we cannot build safe, creative, nurturing schools and criminalize our children at the same time. Teachers, students, parents, and administrators have begun to fight back against zero tolerance policies. WE need to start pushing to get rid of zero tolerance laws, and creating alternative approaches to safe school communities that rely on restorative justice and community building instead of criminalization. ANd during this time it is important that we get feedback from the youth, The Youth provide leadership in these movements in ways that are different from what we often see in classrooms.

Learning Experience #2

In this week’s Learning Experience we  had the reading: “But that’s just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy” by Gloria Ladson-Billings. In chapter 21, Ladson-Billings specifically focuses around a pedagogy that the author identifies as “culturally relevant”, and argues its centrality in the academic success of African American and other children who have not been well served by US public schools. Ladson-Billings also talks about culturally relevant teaching which is “a pedagogy that empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes.” What this means is that teachers build a bridge between students’ home and school life. Culturally relevant teaching utilizes the backgrounds, knowledge, and experiences of the students to inform the teacher’s lessons and methodology. The reading also talks about why we see so little of these “good teaching” methods being used in schools. The reasoning for this being is that students must experience academic success, they must develop and/or maintain cultural competence, and students must develop a critical consciousness through which they challenge the status quo of current social order. 

When Ladson-Billings talks about academic success, she means that students must learn in the subject that they are being taught. And challenging students’ minds to improve their ability to think critically. And that the teacher is also reaching for understanding. And when she brought up cultural competence what she meant is that teachers are able to identify culture change, develop knowledge and an understanding in at least one other culture. That students can be biculturally/multiculturally competent and that teachers are embracing each scholar’s language. 

Anya Kamenetz’s perspective was also brought up and she said “Having just one black teacher in third, fourth or fifth grade reduced low-income black boys’ probability of dropping out of high school by 39 percent, the study found. And by high school, African-American students, both boys and girls, who had one African-American teacher had much stronger expectations of going to college “ (Kamenetz, 2017). This statement I agree with because I think that it is important for African-American students to be able to see themselves in leadership positions through people that look like them. Some of the things that we need to do as future educators is to reconsider what “good teaching”  means and along with that we also need to look for good teaching in unsuccessful districts, and challenge those who believe culturally relevant teaching styles cannot be made available to all students. 

I find this topic really important because it is important that students can be able to see themselves in what they are learning and are able to connect to the lesson. Some of the reasons why I think this is important is because when students see themselves in the lesson they become more interested and engaged in the learning. Along with that they will want to participate and share more. It also makes them want to share their culture with their classmates about who they are culturally and where their family comes from. 

When I was going through school this is something that I did not get this type of education integrated when I was going through any of my years of education. I feel like it would have been more beneficial, if it was. I would have loved to have a lesson that was around the Caribbean or be able to incorporate it into the lesson plan somehow. I know that I would have been more engaged and willing to share because it was something that I have a personal connection with and know about. So I would have been more confident to speak up in the classroom. And most importantly I would have been excited to learn and look forward to the next day, because I would have not been lost in the material and I could have made connections.

Learning Experience #3

In the reading for this week we had the reading “ Chapter 2: Native Americans: Deculturalization. Schooling, and Globalization” by Joel Spring. In the reading he talked about the deculturalization of Native Americans, throughout history Native Americans have been faced with different people trying to eradicate their culture. One of the main reasons why the deculturalization was happening was because of the belief that certain cultures are superior to the other. So doing this strpped the Native Americans of their empowerment that they had, and made them feel less of themselves. There was an attempt to try and reduce the different number of things that were happening to the Native Americans that involved deculturalization. Article 27 of the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention of 1989 was created, which protected different native groups.  Even though this Article was created, there was the original Naturalization Act of 1790 which excluded NAtive Americans from being able to become American citizens. And this was because the common belief shared at the time was that survival of the republic was based on “white” citizenry. It was not until 1867, when Congress created the Indian Peace Commission that allowed Native Americans the right to become American citizens. As it was coming near to the end of the century Native American Nations became denaturalized and these groups began to adopt European beliefs and cultures instead. And it was until 1924 when Congress passed the Indian Citizenship Act which gave Native Americans the right of true American citizenship.  

As protestant churches gained popularity in the United States, the denomination aimed to convert mostly all of the non-Christain world, which included Native Americans. In 1810, Presbetarian and Congregational churches founded the American Board of Commissioners, for Foreign Missions (ABCFM). And then within the next 2 year they were able to send missionaries to the Native American Tribes. Presbetarian missionaries instilled qualities like leadership to the various tribes while spending time away.  When it comes to any culture, language and culture are closely related to one another. The missionaries wanted to develop a written language for the NAtive American as a way to control them. And the Sequoyah language was created for a number of different reasons. Which then led to the first Cherokee newspaper written in Cherokee language and English. But the missionaries did not like the language, because they could not understand it and they believed that the Native Americans could never be able to learn English with the new language. 

Andrew Jackson decided that the policies that were in place for the Native Americans were giving them too much power. And of the thing that he feared was that Native Americans were learning how to resist, and he was right. And since this was happening he wanted to relocate the Native Americans and allow them to have their own government. Which led to the Indian Removal Act, removing the Indians from their lands east of the Mississippi to lands west of the Mississippi. And the President was supposed to provide them with assistance. Which then led to the Trail of Tears, Indians died from cholera, contaminated food, and other dangers that they were forced to endure. Only 2,000 of the 17,000 Cherokees went on this expedition. The others kept faith that they would not be driven from their land. General Winfield Scott was placed in charge of removing the remaining Native Americans. Scott had his troops surrounding houses, forcibly removed the Cherokees, steal valuables, burn houses down, forced families and sometimes just children into stockades. In order to get the Cherokees to move out of their land. 

There were legal issues that were brought up during the removal. The removal of tribes brought up a lot of issues in the legal status of tribal government, and the operation of the government, and tribal school systems. All of the issues were clarified in the Supreme Court in 1831, which involved the extension of Georgia’s state laws over the Cherokee Nation. The Cherokees argued that this was illegal because they were a foreign nation. In court the main question that was brought up was “Is the Cherokee nation a foreign state in the sense in which that term is used in the Constitution?” And the ruling was that Came to the ruling of the regulations of commerce made the distinction between foreign nations, states, and Indian tribes. Indian tribes are not a foreign nation. So, Indian Nations became Domestic dependent nations. And when they settled on Indian territory, they organized governments and established school systems. 

After reading the chapter I was able to understand more about the Native Americans and what they went through and how much they had taken away from them. And it was very heartbreaking to hear that they were losing a big part of themselves and there was not much they could do about it. Of course there were people that were resisting but that only lasted so long until they were outnumbered by Americans. Something that I take away from the Native Americans is their strength and bravery.

Current Connection 2

This week’s Current Connection we had the reading “Test Prep” by Koretz, D. In the reading Koretz talked about the 3 different types of bad test prep. The first one was reallocation between subjects, which is when teachers cut back on material that is not going to raise test scores. Which leads them to shift resources and focus only to those subjects, and cut resources on other subjects like: social studies, art, and music. Which we have seen schools do. One of the problems with this is that what is being cut is very important for the students and for all of us. Which means if students aren’t allowed to learn social studies and science properly, we are setting them up for failure in future jobs that involve those subjects and possibly leave them out for even trying to go out and get degrees in that field. The second problem with this type of test prep is that it can create a misleading positive impression of test-based accountability. 

The second type of bad test prep is reallocation within a subject. Which is about reallocationing tine and other resources within the subject that you are teaching. And focusing on topics that are going to be emphasized on the test instead of topics as a whole. And take away from a lot of potential from students going deeper into one subject that they would like to learn more about. 

The third bad type of test prep is Coaching. This type of test prep focuses on unimportant details of the test, such as the format of the test, how the material is presented, and how the content is being tested. They also focus on how the student’s response is going to be scored. Coaching focuses more on details of the test rather than the underlying content that students need to learn, 

The article that I found that connected to the reading was “Teacher: What happened when I stopped test prep and focused on building relationships with my students.” by  Valerie Strauss. The article talks about the No Child Left Behind program. Which is when standardized testing became the main way for evaluating students, teachers, and schools. And this started under the Obama Administration, there was a policy put into place where most states for teachers to be evaluated by standardized test scores of their students. Teachers started to give tips on testing within their lessons to get students ready for standardized testing, and practiced with last year’s tests to get students a sense of the type of questions that will be on the test for the upcoming year. Along with that teachers would have students practice doing tests on computers in order for their students to build stamina and for preparation for the test. Strauss in the article talks about how she eliminated test prep from her lesson plans, and focused on building relationships and making engaging lesson plans. What she focused on throughout the year was getting to know students as individuals, focusing extra attention on quiet, withdrawn students, sharing personal stories, taking time for positive home-school communities, pushing back against that panicky feeling that “We don’t have time for this” and maintaining an upbeat, enthusiastic attitude. And when the testing season approached she did not change what she was doing throughout the year, the only thing that she told her students was how testing was an important test of measurement.  

When Strauss got the result back she felt a number of emotions. She was happy that her students had made improvements. As well as disappointed with results of students she knew would have wanted to do better with their results. After looking at the tests overall, she came to the conclusion that relationships matter. And what Strauss is something that I plan on doing when I become a teacher, because it is something that I think is important to have in the classroom. Because it helps build a community and help the students feel more comfortable in the classroom, so when it comes time to have these tests there is less pressure on the students for them to get a certain, but instead of them just going in and trying their best. 

Learning Experience #1

In the Learning Connection for this week we had the reading “How School Choice Turns Education into a Commodity” by Jason Blakely. The reading talked about Neoliberalism and the effects that it has on Education.  Blakely talks about Neoliberalism, an economic system in which the free market is extended to every part of society. The goal of Neoliberalism is to  liberate enterprise from any restrictions put in place by the government. And that the system centers around individual responsibility, rather than communal responsibility. And when it came to talking about how Neoliberalism plays a role in the marketization of schools. Schools were seen as private organizations, And they would be markets which have winners and losers. Which is something that I do not agree with when it comes to Education. In my opinion, I do not think that when it comes to something that is so important for a child to be able to make a life for themselves, and also build a life for themselves, to have winners and losers. It is not fair to the child. Especially, in this system where the poor are set up to fail and the rich are the ones who benefit from it. “Market choice does, however, favor those who already have education, wealth, and wherewithal to plan, coordinate, and execute moving their children to the optimal educational setting” (Blakely, 2017). The point that Blakely is trying to make shows that this system only works if you already have a leg up, and you were born into a well off family. 

Another thing that was brought up was a fundamental question that was brought up in the article and it was, “Should it (education) be organized around a model in which the more you win the more you get, and the more you lose the less you are given?” (Blakely, 2017) And I disagree with this question because there should not be winners and losers in Education. That should not be a factor of deciding whether or not you help a child out. As educators we should be helping students out no matter where their family’s background is or how much money they have. Which is also something that is out of the child’s control.  I also think that if there ever was a day that we decided to do that as a part of the educational system, is the day that we fail as educators, because to have something as education is a basic need. Because if you do not have education or higher level education you can not make it in America, just by living off of minimum wage. And deciding whether or not if a student is “winning” or “losing” to decide how much more or much less that they will be given, is not the way that education should be run. Every student should be given the same opportunities and chances, they should all receive the same resources and tools to make sure that they will be able to reach whatever goal that they put their mind to.  

Current Connection #1

For my Current Connection, we had the reading Education in a Progessive Period by Edward Janak. In the reading Jank talks about how Education was changed by people that contributed to starting this push in Education, John Locke, Charles Darwin, William James, etc. And then talked about what it means about Progressivism.  Progressives ultimately believe that learning how to learn is more important than knowing a set of specific facts. Also, Progressive thinkers believe experience and nature are completely interrelated and that we must take time to return to a natural state/world. And when it came to the impact that it has had on education, Janak explained that progressives believed it was the goal to develop the intellectual, moral, and aesthetic dimensions of students. They also believed that it is more important for students to learn how to learn than is what they learn. Another big thing that Janak was trying to get at was the Cardinal Principles. 

The first one is Health which includes health instruction, healthy living, physical education classes, developing programs of home/community health awareness. The second one is  Command of Fundamental Processes which talks about having reading, writing, math, “elements of oral and written expression”. The third one is Worthy home membership, which includes music and art, wholesome relations between boys and girls, homemaking skills for girls. The fourth one is Livelihood (Vocational) which includes social development with coworkers, right attitude about work, vocational preparation, and vocational guidance. The fifth one is Civic Education and it talks about understanding international problems, responsibilities as a citizen. The sixth principle is Worthy use of leisure (avocational interests) which includes things that students can do when they are not in school like music, art, literature, drama, social interactions- to enrich and enlarge the body, mind, spirit, and personality. The final principle is Ethical Character which talks about morals and values, personal responsibility and initiative, spirit of service.  

The article that I connected to the reading was “The Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education” by  Theresa Alonso. The article talks about how The Commission focused on making secondary education purposeful and common across the United States. The Commission was formed of sixteen committees whose sole responsibility was issuing various reports based on the performance of schools and the curriculum.  In 1913,  a reviewing committee was added to revise reports and have continued correspondence between all other committees throughout the year. In 1918, after three years of revision, the reviewing committee published a report on the fundamental principles of secondary education, becoming the foundation for education throughout the country. The main focus of the article was to highlight the point of Society is always changing, therefore education should change to meet the new needs presented within the societal structures. 

And that is a statement that I agree with, because times are changing and it is important to keep up with what is changing. Even though there are some things that are still being taught in schools like, Home Economics. Because there are kids today that do not know how to do some of the most basic home skills and are not going to learn how to do because the parents  do not have the time to teach them. Teenagers today do not know how to cook, clean, do laundry, sew and they probably won’t learn unless they look up youtube videos and learn for themselves, because their parents won’t teach them and they are not going to learn it in school. Another reason why I think this article connected with the reading was because it showed the backstory of the Cardinal Principle and how different people were working on it and making corrections.       

ED253- Class Survey

Hello, My name is Jessica Reynolds, but Jess is okay with me. My pronouns are She/Her/Hers. I am from Chicago, IL. I am a Sophomore and I want to teach Pre-K 3 through kindergarten. I am a very shy person at first, but once I start to get comfortable around new people that is when I start to open up.  I am the Head of Communications for the LGBTQIA+ Allies Exec. Board here on campus. Some of the things that matter most to me are LGBTQIA+ Rights and the Black Lives Matter Movement.  One of the service activities that I was thinking about signing up for was the  JCU Lobo LAB- Virtual Field Trips.  

Some of the things that must be in place for myself to take intellectual and creative risks in the classroom is that there has to be a form of mutual respect for one another, opinions, and backgrounds. That everyone in the classroom knows that we all come from different backgrounds and we have different experiences, and that it’s okay and we should be able to express them freely within the classroom. Another thing that needs to be put in place to help make the classroom more comfortable is that we all come to class being open-minded about what our peers have to say about different topics. One of the issues that I feel like has always been the funding for education. How there is such a lack of it and then schools are choosing which programs in their school gets funding and which programs don’t get as much. 

Learning Experience 3

For our final learning experience, we had the chapters “From Outrage to Organization Building Community Ties Through Education Activism,” “Why Community Schools? Public schools as Greenhouses of Democracy,” “Q/A: How can I decide if a reform project is worth supporting?” “Aren’t You on the Parent Listserv?”  Working for equitable family involvement in a dual-immersion elementary school,” “Blood on the Tracks  Why are there so few Black students in our science classes?” and “Little Kids, Big Ideas  Teaching social issues and global conflicts with young children.”

In the first chapter “From Outrage to Organization Building Community Ties Through Education Activism” the main focus of the chapter was the need for communities and how they can tie in activism. A story that came for the chapter is when in New Jersey a group of black teens were walking home and the police stopped the teens from going home because of the assumption of where they live and what their income was based on the color of their skin. The police actions were “justified” because of what they assumed was the students intentions. After that, T.J Whitaker was also a teacher at the community school and decided to implement a program. These meetings were held in his own house and the learned from readings, media, guests and most importantly each other. The Maplewood South Orange Freedom School(MAPSO) founded by Whitaker and his Community went on to educate the adults and kids in the community. And they also took action by removing the chief of police. 

The second chapter was ‘Why Community Schools? Public Schools as Greenhouses of Democracy.” The chapter focuses on 6 different pillars of community schools. It talks about how the community schools need to have an engaging curriculum, high-quality teaching, inclusive leadership, community support services, positive discipline practices, and significant parent and community engagement. The first one was Strong and Culturally Relevant Curriculum which explains how educators need to engage students with challenging, culturally relevant curriculum using teaching strategies. The second topic was High-Quality Teaching and the focus of this topic is Creating student-centered classrooms, teaching problem-solving and critical thinking, and engaging students with rich, challenging curricula are a central school wide focus. The third topic was Inclusive/Shared Leadership and the main focus of this topic was leadership must not end with administration or teachers. The students and entire community must be involved for it to be effective. The fourth topic was Community Support Services, and the main focus of this topic was creating student-centered classrooms, teaching problem-solving and critical thinking, and engaging students with rich, challenging curricula are a central school wide focus. The 5th topic was Positive Discipline Practices, and the sixth one was Family and Community Engagement. And the 5th and 6th one had the same focus as the 4th topic. 

The third chapter was “Q/A: How can I decide if a reform project is worth supporting?” 

The chapter talks about how Educational Reform is a “top-down” process meaning most of the effective placements are take by more experienced members. And that there are questions that we need to be asking if the reform plan is important to you. Those questions are: Has the Project been created in a response to a top-down directive or is it the product of a teacher, student, community, etc.?, Does the plan have administrative or political support?, What is the timeline?, How does this project concern opportunity (race, gender, sex, faith)?, and How would this affect the community? 

The fourth chapter was “Aren’t You on the Parent Listserv? Working for equitable family involvement in a dual-immersion elementary school.” The chapter talks about, 

how Mrs. Grace Cornell Gonzales noticed that the majority of the PTA parents were upper-middle class and white. She teaches at a bilingual school, yet the minority races still were not included.  She wanted everyone to be a part of the conversation. She wanted to find a room parent who was a native Spanish speaker, and start the conversations that were avoided the years before. She made a list of how she wanted the parent to be involved in the classroom. Gonzales created community guidelines and the first point was that all communication must be bilingual, important communication cannot just be through email, teacher-to-parent communication needs to fit the family and determine which families require more effort. One of the things that the chapter mentioned was to communicate why there needs to be communication. And to always include parents even if you are not sure on which way is the best approach.     

The fifth chapter was ““Blood on the Tracks  Why are there so few Black students in our science classes?” The chapter talks how when a student see graphs on Ms. Lindahl’s desk, the student  was confused on what the graphs were showing but when Lindahl explained to the student that the graphs were the science classes shown by race, the student was shocked. The chapter also mentioned that, in 2009, African Americans were 12% of the US population, yet Black Students earned only 7% of all Bachelor’s degrees in STEM fields. Only 4% of African Americans earned a Master’s degree, and only 2% earned PhDs.  Another thing that the chapter mentioned that I thought was interesting was how white students with college-educated parents of higher socioeconomic status often “chose” the most demanding class. Lindahl and two other teachers in the department wrote a successful grant for laptops, which included a commitment to get an increased enrollment of underrepresented  racial groups in advanced sciences classes.  And because of what they were doing there were some changes that were put in place: End the AP Biology and replace it with Advance Biology- earns student community college credit,  all sophomores have to take Chemistry, and Anatomy and Physiology Class- college-credit. One of the things that Lindahl wanted to do was have a conversation with the black students and see how they felt in the science classes. When she talked with the black students.  Lia talked about how her chemistry class was group work, and she didn’t like that, because she would say something and then get ignored. And then a white student would say the same thing just with advanced vocabulary. They would get the praise. Monique would ask for help in her group but then they ignored her. Then she would go to the teacher and then he would just send it back to the group. And in the end she felt isolated.

The sixth chapter was Little Kids, Big Ideas  Teaching social issues and global conflicts with young children.” The chapter was about a Rethinking Schools editor who was a chaperone on a field trip, when he heard a 2nd grader say that he wants to “nuke the world.” And when he asked the student what he meant he said, “Everything is just so bad. We should just nuke the word and start over.” When continuing the conversation the student brought up Donald Trump and Kim Jong-un. And after that the editor knew that the little kid knew enough about the situation to feel helpless, which led him to wanting destruction. Kids listen to snippets of news reports, hear things from siblings, parents, and classmates. And they play video games that have global conflict in it. Kids also feel the stress and anger that adults around them are feeling. One of the things that we need to do as educators and as adults is to listen to children’s questions and respect them, even if we don’t have the perfect answer for them. Even though young children can’t fully grasp the topic you are talking about in depth, they can understand it in broad strokes. It is important to inform and involve the parents  in the process, without allowing individual parents to dictate what should be taught in school based on personal biases or prejudices. Young children learn best by acting out the world around them and putting themselves in other people’s shoes, and students should be able to look at the world in a perspective that is not their own. When we teach in this way, we cultivate empathy, especially for those who are different from us.