South Carolina Passes The Negro Act of 1740
On May 10th 1740, the “Bill for the better ordering and governing of Nergoes and other slaves in this province” also known as the Negro Act was passed (Madeo, 2019). Under this Act African Americans were not allowed to grow their own food, learn how to read or also learn how to write. African Americans were not also allowed to move freely and go where they wanted to go. African Americans also can not assemble in groups or earn their own money (Madeo, 2019). South Carolina put this act into place after an unsuccessful Stono Rebellion in 1739, where 50 enslaved Africans Americans were resisting bondage, which brought up an uprising that killed close to 20-25 white people (Madeo, 2019). After the rebellion there was a racial caste and property system that was put into place. Where there had to be one white person for every 10 enslaved people. The Negro Act placed all enslaved Africans human chattel and took away all forms of civil rights.
1849: Roberts v. The City of Boston
The actions that led to the Roberts v. The City of Boston, in the late 1700’s slavery was abolished in Massachusetts. And coming from this Boston schools were not segregated (Brown, 2018). But African American students felt like they were at a disadvantage, because white teachers and students in the integrated schools harassed and mistreated African American students. Parents at the time tried to petition for a special school for their kids, but it was denied by the state legislature. The first segregated school for African American children was privately established in 1798 (Brown, 2018). Two years later African American parents brought up the concerns about them paying taxes to support a school that their children could not even attend. Soon the African American parents started the petition for segregated schools to be closed down, they petitioned between the years 1845-1848 (Brown, 2018). The final effort was undertaken in 1849 under the legal leadership of attorneys Charles Sumner, who went on to become a United States Senator, and Robert Morris, an African American activist who shared the title abolitionist with his colleagues. In their petition to the Massachusetts Supreme Court, attorneys for the African American parents outlined the circumstances believed to be unlawful. The Roberts case was unsuccessful because authorities reasoned that special provisions had been made for “colored” students to have a school. In April 1855 a bill was presented and passed by the Massachusetts legislature. This action provided that no distinction based on color, race or religion should be made for any student applying for admission to any public school in the state (Brown, 2018).
1868- The Fourteenth Amendment
The 14th Amendment was passed on July 18, 1868. Three year prior to that the Civil War had ended. After the Civil War ended some southern states began actively passing laws that restrict the rights of former slaves (Tulane, 2017). The way that Congress responded was with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment has 5 sections, the first section introduces citizenship for all people that were born in the country or naturalized. The first section also covers the limitations of state laws, in which they cannot supersede federal laws that governs the citizens (Tulane, 2017). The 14th Amendment was designed to grant citizenship rights to African-Americans, and it states that citizenship cannot be taken from anyone unless someone gives it up or commits perjury during the naturalization process. The 14th Amendment removed the ⅗ law from the Constitution, giving freed slaves full weight as citizens. The only adult male citizens who were denied the right to vote were those convicted of crimes.
1875- The Civil Rights Act of 1875
Radical Republican senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts introduced the Civil Rights Act in 1870 as an amendment. The bill guaranteed all citizens, regardless of color, access to accommodations, theatres, public schools, churches, and cemeteries. The bill also further stopped the barring of any person from jury service on account of race, and provided that all lawsuits brought under the new law would be tried in federal, not state, courts (U.S Senate, 2020). When Congress began to explain the Reconstruction amendments which are the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments. These three amendments did limit the power of the States, but the amendments did extend power of the General Government. But the one thing that lawmakers could not agree on was how far the power of the federal government would extend (U.S Senate, 2020). Even though the bill did get passed, it dropped one component about the bill and that component was the part in the bill that would prohibit segregation in public schools.
1879- U.S Cavalry Captain Richard Henry Pratt opened boarding school
The boarding school cavalry captain Pratt opened is not the boarding schools that we think about today. These boarding schools were Carlisle Indian Industrial School that was backed with government funding (Little, 2018). The Native American boarding schools were a method of forced assimilation. The main goal of these schools were to make Native Americans more like the white Anglo-Americans, who took over their land. Part of this school’s system was to take children away from their families and tribes. At the boarding schools the staff forced Indigenous students to cut their hair and gave them new names. When the children were attending this school they were not allowed to speak their Native language (Little, 2018). Once the children returned home they had a hard time connecting with their families and other members in their tribe. The main reason for this comes from when the children were at school they were taught that speaking their language or practicing their religion was wrong.
1890- Louisiana Separate Car Act
The separate car act was put into place as “an act to promote comfort of passengers” requiring that all that of the railway companies carrying passengers on their trains, in the State of Louisiana to provide separate but equal accommodations for the white and people of color (Railroads, 2019). By providing separate coaches or compartments so as to secure separate accommodations; defining the duties of the officers of such railways. Directing them to assign passengers to the coaches or compartment set aside for the use of the race to which such passengers belong. The train company had the ability to authorize them to refuse to carry on their train such passengers may refuse to occupy the coaches or compartments to which he or she is assigned (Railroads, 2019). In the first section of this act it states, “No person or persons, shall be permitted to occupy seats in coaches, other than the ones assigned to them on account of the race they belong to” (Railroads, 2019).
1896- Plessy v. Ferguson
Plessy v. The Ferguson Case came for the Louisiana Separate Car act that was passed in 1890. Homer Adolph Plessy, who is mixed-raced and agreed to be the plaintiff in this case and to test the law’s constitutionality. He described himself as ⅞ Caucasian and ⅛ African blood (History, 2009). Homer Plessy refused to sit in a car for Black people. Rejecting Plessy’s argument that his constitutional rights were violated, the Supreme Court ruled that a law that “implies merely a legal distinction” between white people and Black people was not unconstitutional. As a result, restrictive Jim Crow legislation and separate public accommodations based on race became commonplace (History, 2009). The Plessy v. Ferguson’s verdict enshrined the doctrine of “separate but equal” as a constitutional justification for segregation, ensuring the survival of the Jim Crow South for the next half-century. Railroads was one of the segregated public facilities, other places included buses, hotels, theaters, swimming pools, and schools.
1899- Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County
In this Supreme Court Case it was ruled that the state of Georgia did not violate any constitutional rights when they decided to close down high-school services for 60 African Americans students in order to provide elementary education for 300 African American students (Mahon, 2008). In 1880 the board of education in Richmond county, Georgia, established Ware High School for African American students and charged a yearly tuition of $10. Several years later a special committee recommended that for economic reasons the high school be closed and converted into four elementary schools. The board agreed, asserting that the high-school students could obtain an education at the Haines Industrial School, the Walker Baptist Institute (Mahon, 2008). African American parents, including J.W. Cumming objected to the closing of Ware. The state’s high court then reversed in favor of the board, removing the injunction and dismissing the parents’ petition (Mahon, 2008). The court pointed out that the affected secondary-school students could still have received an education in private schools for tuition that was no greater than they already were paying at Ware High School. Absent a clear violation of rights, the court did not think that federal authorities had the authority to interfere in the operation of the schools.
1917- The Silent Protest
A group between 8,000-10,000 African American men, women and children marched through the streets of midtown Manhattan in what is now known as the first Civil Right Protests in American History. The only sound that was heard was the sound of drums. The protestors marched in silence mourning those who have been killed in a wave of anti-African American violence that had impacted the nation (Maranzani, 2017). In the year preceding the march, two notorious lynching attacks had made headlines; one in Waco, Texas, which saw 10,000 people gather to watch a Black man hung, and another in Tennessee that drew a crowd of 5,000. An NAACP flyer advertising the march stated the group’s aims. “We march because we want our children to live in a better land and enjoy fairer conditions than have fallen to our lot” (Maranzani, 2017).
Dec. 9, 1952- May 17, 1954- Brown v. Board of Education
In 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in Plessy v. Ferguson that racially segregated public facilities were legal, so long as the facilities for Black people and whites were equal. After that the ruling constitutionally sanctioned laws barring African Americans from sharing the same buses, schools and other public facilities as whites—known as Jim Crow Laws—and established the “separate but equal” doctrine that would stand for the next six decades (History, 2021). In his lawsuit, Brown claimed that schools for Black children were not equal to the white schools, and that segregation violated the so-called “equal protection clause” of the 14th Amendment, which holds that no state can “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” When Brown’s case to the Supreme Court there were already four other cases related to school segregation first came before the Supreme Court in 1952, the Court combined them into a single case under the name Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (History, 2021). In the decision, issued on May 17, 1954, Warren wrote that “in the field of public education the doctrine of ‘separate but equal’ has no place,” as segregated schools are “inherently unequal.” As a result, the Court ruled that the plaintiffs were being “deprived of the equal protection of the laws guaranteed by the 14th Amendment.”
1954- Bolling v. Sharpe
In the case of Bolling v. Sharpe challenged the validity of segregation in public schools of the District of Columbia. The ones who were petitioning this case were the youth of the African-American community. They allege that such segregation deprives them of due process of law under the 15th Amendment. They were refused admission to a public school attended by white children solely because of their race. They sought the aid of the District Court for the District of Columbia in obtaining admission (Cornell, 2020). At first the court dismissed their complaint. Then the courts granted them to be able to have a written document because of judgment in the Court of Appeals because of the importance of the constitutional question presented. The legal problem in the District of Columbia was different from other states, because it does have the equal protection clause (Cornell, 2020). This Court declared the principle ‘that the constitution of the United States, in its present form, forbids, so far as civil and political rights are concerned, discrimination by the general government, or by the states, against any citizen because of their race.
1956- Clinton High School
Before 1956, black high school students were bused out of the county to Knoxville since no black segregated high school existed in Anderson County. The students were frustrated that they had to take a long bus ride to get to school everyday. Local African Americans filed a lawsuit in 1950, but it was appealed. After the Court passed the Brown decision in 1954, a local judge ordered the school to accept black students by the fall of 1956. The school administrators prepared to comply (Tennessee, 2018). Twelve African American students were registered without incident. But John Kasper, a vocal segregationist from Washington D.C., came to Clinton to stir up opposition to the integration. Kasper called for rallies and protests against the African American students that were Clinton High School. In August 1956, the black students walked into Clinton High School. They were the first African Americans in the South to attend a previously all-white public school (Tennessee, 2018).
1957- Eisenhower Sent the 101st Airborne to Little Rock to Protect Little Rock Nine
The school board of Little Rock, Arkansas, voted to desegregate their high schools starting in 1957, which led to a crisis that catapulted the state’s governor into a showdown with the president of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower. In 1957, Arkansas had integrated several state universities and smaller school districts, but it was when Little Rock Nine decided to attend the all-white Central High School (Clark, 2020). September 4, when the black students, historically known as the Little Rock Nine, faced a vicious throng outside Central, they were denied entry by armed troops in the Arkansas National Guard. The intense stand-off continued over several weeks as the National Guard continued to surround the school in defiance of Judge Davies’s ruling. The governor removed the National Guard troops from Central and left security to the local police. As the Little Rock Nine made another attempt to enter on September 23, they had to use a side entrance because a belligerent mob of 1,000 had formed outside. When a riot erupted, the police had to evacuate the black students for their safety (Clark, 2020). September 23, President Eisenhower issued Executive Order 10730, which put the Arkansas National Guard under federal authority, and sent 1,000 U.S. Army troops from the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock, to maintain order as Central High School desegregated.
Oct. 25, 1958- Apr. 18, 1959- Youth March for Integrated Schools
In August 1958 a small committee headed by labor leader A. Philip Randolph began organizing the first Youth March for Integrated Schools, to take place on 25 October 1958. One of the main purpose of the march was to give people in the North an opportunity to show their solidarity with Negro children in the South who have become the first line of defense in the struggle for integrated schools (Stanford, 2019). A diverse group of leaders planned the march; the six honorary chairmen involved in the marches both years were King, Randolph, Roy Wilkins, Ruth Bunche, Jackie Robinson, and Daisy Bates. On the day of the 1958 march, an integrated crowd of 10,000 marched down Constitution Avenue in Washington, D.C., to the Lincoln Memorial. There, Coretta Scott King delivered a speech on behalf of her husband (Stanford, 2019). On 18 April 1959, an estimated 26,000 participants marched down the National Mall to a program at the Sylvan Theatre, where speeches were given by King, Randolph, Wilkins, and Charles Zimmerman, chairman of the American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations Civil Rights Committee.
1959- The Closing of Prince Edward County’s Schools
In 1959 Virginia’s school-closing law was ruled unconstitutional. The General Assembly repealed the compulsory school attendance law and gave the state’s counties and cities the option of operating public schools. Most localities, some after legal disputes, moved to integrate their school systems. That was not the case in Prince Edward County (Virginia, 2018). May 1, 1959, to integrate its schools, the county instead closed its entire public school system. Officials in Prince Edward then created private schools to educate the county’s white children. Prince Edward Academy, in particular, became the prototype for all-white private schools formed to protest school integration. Some African American students received schooling with relatives in nearby communities or at makeshift schools in the basement of churches. Other African American students traveled out of the state to attend school with the support of groups (Virginia, 2018). In February of President John F. Kennedy referred to what was going on in a speech to Congress about civil rights, but Prince Edward County did not reopen its public schools on an integrated basis until 1964. When the U.S Supreme Court outlawed Virginia’s tuition grants to private education.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
In the 1960’s people who knew about the potential about the equal protection of the laws and expected the president, Congress, and the courts to fulfill their end of what they promised what was going to happen as they stated in the 14th Amendment. In June of 1964 President John F. Kennedy asked Congress for a comprehensive civil rights bill, because of the mass resistance that was coming from desegregation (U.S Department, 2019). After Kennedy’s assassination in November, President Lyndon Johnson pressed hard, with the support of Roy Wilkins and Clarence Mitchell, to secure the bill’s passage the following year. In 1964, Congress passed Public Law. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin. Provisions of this civil rights act forbade discrimination on the basis of sex, as well as, race in hiring, promoting, and firing. The Act prohibited discrimination in public accommodations and federally funded programs (U.S Department, 2019). Along with that it also strengthened the enforcement of voting rights and the desegregation of schools.
1971- Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education
On April 20, 1971, the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously upheld busing programs that aimed to speed up the racial integration of public schools in the United States.In 1954 the Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. But because of racially segregated housing patterns and resistance by local leaders, many schools remained as segregated in the late 1960s as they were at the time of the Brown decision (Britannica, 2020). In Charlotte, North Carolin the mid-1960s less than 5 percent of African American children attended integrated schools. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), on behalf of Vera and Darius Swann, the parents of a six-year-old child, sued the Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district to allow their son to attend Seversville Elementary School (Britannica, 2020). The federal district judge in the case ruled in favor of the Swanns and oversaw the implementation of a busing strategy that integrated the district’s schools.
1971- Schools in Denver were intentionally segregating Mexican and Black students from the white students
This lawsuit was filed by the parents for their minor children who were attending Denver Public Schools. To take action of what was happening in the schools, which was an alleged segregated condition of certain Denver schools and the effects of that condition. In the lawsuit it talks about how the schools were purposely maintained inferior schools by their method of allocation to the schools, and such practice has caused those schools to be substantially inferior to other schools within the district with predominantly Anglo students (US Law, 2018). They also said that the schools denied minority students an equal educational opportunity in violation of the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. There are 92 elementary schools, 16 junior high schools, and 9 senior high schools. There has never been a law in Colorado requiring separate educational facilities for different races. The policy to which the School Board has consistently adhered is the neighborhood school plan (US Law, 2018). The goal is a centrally located school which children living within the boundary lines must attend. Although the Board has no written policy governing the setting of attendance boundaries, several factors have apparently been employed.
1974- Lau v. Nichols: Developing Programs for English Language Learners
This lawsuit comes from The failure of the San Francisco school system to provide English language instruction to approximately 1,800 students of Chinese ancestry who do not speak English, or to provide them with other adequate instructional procedures, denies them a meaningful opportunity to participate in the public educational program and thus violates the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which bans discrimination based on the ground of race, color, or national origin (Department of Education, 2020). Teaching English to the students of Chinese ancestry who do not speak the language is one choice. Giving instructions to this group in Chinese is another. There may be others. Petitioners ask only that the Board of Education be directed to apply its expertise to the problem and rectify the situation (Department of Education, 2020). The District Court denied relief. The Court of Appeals reasoned that “every student brings to the starting line of his educational career different advantages and disadvantages caused in part by social, economic and cultural background, created and continued completely apart from any contribution by the school system.
1977- Missouri v. Jenkins
In 1977, the Kansas City, Missouri, School District (KCMD), the school board, and the children of two school board members brought suit in the United States District Court for the Western District of Missouri against the state of Missouri and various suburban school districts or allegedly causing and perpetuating racial segregation in the schools of the city’s metropolitan area (LexisNexis, 2018). The District Court determined that the state and the city district had operated a segregated school system within the city district. It determined that segregation had caused a systemwide reduction in student achievement in the city district’s schools and ordered a wide range of remedial “quality education” programs for all students in the city district’s schools (LexisNexis, 2018). The Supreme Court found that the District Court necessarily has discretion to fashion a remedy for a school district unconstitutionally segregated in law, such remedial power is not unlimited and may not be extended to purposes beyond the elimination of racial discrimination in public schools.
1978- University of California v Bakke
Bakke decision, formally Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, ruling in which, on June 28, 1978, the U.S. The Supreme Court declared affirmative action constitutional but invalidated the use of racial quotas (Britannica, 2019). The University of California, Davis, as part of the university’s affirmative action program, had reserved 16 percent of its admission places for minority applicants. Allan Bakke, a white California man who had twice unsuccessfully applied for admission to the medical school, filed suit against the universBakke charged that he had suffered unfair “reverse discrimination” on the basis of race, which he argued was contrary to the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment (Britannica, 2019). Several U.S. states prohibited affirmative action programs based on race.
1996- Resegregated Neighborhood Schools in Oklahoma City Fail to Meet District Promises of Achievement and Equity
Elementary schools in Oklahoma City, after 13 years of busing for integration, have not led to the gains in achievement, parent involvement, and equity the school district had claimed (News Editor, 2020). The Supreme Court based its decision on a lower court’s findings that the re-segregated neighborhood elementary schools in Oklahoma City had increased achievement, parent and community involvement, while maintaining equity and integration in the city’s schools. These “findings” by the lower court about the purported benefits of neighborhood schools were based entirely on the claims of Oklahoma City School District officials(News Editor, 2020). Segregation has not decreased in Oklahoma City’s schools, as the lower court judge predicted would occur due to projected increase in neighborhood integration. The proportion of black students in the majority-black elementary schools has remained consistently high, at 96.7 percent black (as compared with 98.8 percent black in 1985, the first year the district returned to segregated neighborhood elementary schools).The Equity Committee, established as the monitoring authority over equity-related issues in the resegregated neighborhood schools, had disbanded by the time both the lower court and the Supreme Court were making their decision to allow the schools to return to segregation.
1999- Desegregation and Resegregation of Charlotte’s Schools
The success of the integration program lasted for almost three decades, until William Capacchione, a white parent, sued the school district because he believed his daughter was not admitted into a local magnet school because of her race (Smith, 2016). But in 1999 Federal District Court Judge Robert Potter—who as a private citizen had been active in the anti-busing movement of the nineteen-sixties—ordered the district to stop using race in pupil assignments. Under the new “Family Choice Plan,” students were largely made to attend the schools in their neighborhood. But most neighborhoods in Charlotte are deeply segregated and racially homogenous communities, as a result of decades of housing segregation, and so schools that were once integrated and high-achieving soon became stratified by race and income (Smith, 2016).The social science on the impact of desegregation is clear. Researchers have consistently found that students in integrated schools—irrespective of ethnicity, race, or social class—are more likely to make academic gains in mathematics, reading, and often science than they are in segregated ones.
2000’s- School are More Segregated Than When They Were in the 1970’s
judicial-supervised desegregation by the district, Sanetra’s school was 68 percent black. Now it is almost entirely black, and the many white pupils who once rode in on yellow buses number one in a hundred (Winter, 2003).Dozens of Charlotte schools have basically changed color in the months since the appeals court lifted the desegregation order. In 2003, we are now seeing black students now typically go to schools where fewer than 31 percent of their classmates are white, the new Harvard study found. That is less contact than in 1970, a year before the Supreme Court authorized the busing that became a primary way of integrating schools (Winter, 2003). Latino students, who have rarely been a focus of desegregation efforts, now attend schools where whites account for only 29 percent of all students, compared with 45 percent three decades ago.
2007- Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1.
In the Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District lawsuit five Supreme Court justices rejected voluntary desegregation plans in Seattle and Louisville, finding it unconstitutional for school districts to rely on the race of individual students when making student assignment decisions (Cohen, 2017). Four justices voted broadly against race-conscious integration plans, and four voted broadly in favor of them. In the middle was Justice Anthony Kennedy, who agreed with Justice Roberts in certain respects. Kennedy’s concurring opinion that most dramatically shapes our modern legal landscape today on questions regarding school segregation. Kennedy agreed that Seattle’s and Louisville’s race-based integration plans were unconstitutional (Cohen, 2017). Kennedy even endorsed specific strategies that he felt could be used to foster school diversity-like drawing attendance zones that take into consideration the demographics of students’ neighborhoods, and “allocating resources for special programs” such as magnet schools.
Britannica, Editors. “Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education.” Britannica, 2020, https://www.britannica.com/event/Swann-v-Charlotte-Mecklenburg-Board-of-Education. Accessed 09 May 2021.
Britannica, N/A. “Bakke Decision.” Britannica, 2019, https://www.britannica.com/event/Bakke-decision6. Accessed 09 May 2021.
Brown, Foundation. “Prelude to Brown – 1849: Roberts v. The City of Boston.” Brown Foundation, 2018, https://brownvboard.org/content/prelude-brown-1849-roberts-v-city-boston. Accessed 3 May 2021.
Clark, Alexis. “Why Eisenhower Sent the 101st Airborne to Little Rock After Brown v. Board.” History, 8 April 2020, https://www.history.com/news/little-rock-nine-brown-v-board-eisenhower-101-airborne. Accessed 9 May 2021.
Cohn, Rachel. “‘Parents Involved,’ A Decade Later.” The American Prospect, 2017, https://prospect.org/justice/parents-involved-decade-later/. Accessed 10 May 2021.
Cornell, N/A. “BOLLING et al. v. SHARPE et al.” Cornell Law School, 2020, https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/347/497. Accessed 08 May 2021.
Department of Education. “Developing Programs for English Language Learners: Lau v. Nichols.” U.S. Department of Education, 2020, https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/ell/lau.html. Accessed 10 May 2021.
History, Editors. “Brown v. Board of Education.” History, 2021, https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka. Accessed 08 May 2021.
History, Editors. “Plessy v. Ferguson.” History, 2009, https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/plessy-v-ferguson. Accessed 8 May 2021.
LexisNexis. “Law School Case Brief.” LexisNexis, 2018, https://www.lexisnexis.com/community/casebrief/p/casebrief-missouri-v-jenkins. Accessed 10 May 2021.
Little, Becky. “Government Boarding Schools Once Separated Native American Children From Families.” History, 1 November 2018, https://www.history.com/news/government-boarding-schools-separated-native-american-children-families. Accessed 2 May 2021.
Madeo, N/A. “May 10, 1740 | South Carolina Passes Negro Act of 1740; Codifying White Supremacy.” A History of Racial Injustice, 2019, https://calendar.eji.org/racial-injustice/may/10. Accessed 10 June 2021.
Mahon, Patrick. “Cumming v. Board of Education of Richmond County.” Britannica, 2008, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Cumming-v-Board-of-Education-of-Richmond-County. Accessed 8 May 2021.
Maranzani, Barbara. “The ‘Silent’ Protest That Kick-Started the Civil Rights Movement.” History, 2017, https://www.history.com/news/the-silent-protest-that-kick-started-the-civil-rights-movement. Accessed 08 May 2021.
News Editor. “Study Finds Resegregated Neighborhood Schools in Oklahoma City Fail to Meet District Promises of Achievement and Equity.” Harvard Graduate School of Education, 2019, https://www.gse.harvard.edu/news/96/09/study-finds-resegregated-neighborhood-schools-oklahoma-city-fail-meet-district-promises. Accessed 10 May 2021.
Railroads, N/A. “The Louisiana Railway Accommodations Act.” Railroads and the Making of Modern America, 2019, https://railroads.unl.edu/documents/view_document.php?id=rail.gen.0060. Accessed 8 May 2021.
Smith, Clint. “The Desegregation and Resegregation of Charlotte’s Schools.” The New Yorker, 3 October 2016, https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/the-desegregation-and-resegregation-of-charlottes-schools. Accessed 10 May 2021.
Stanford, N/A. “Youth March for Integrated Schools.” Stanford University, 2019, https://kinginstitute.stanford.edu/encyclopedia/youth-march-integrated-schools. Accessed 09 May 2021.
Tennessee, N/A. “Clinton High School.” Tennessee 4 me, 2018, http://www.tn4me.org/article.cfm/a_id/111/minor_id/26/major_id/11/era_id/8. Accessed 08 May 2021.
Tulane, Law School. “History of Law: The Fourteenth Amendment.” Tulane Law School, 09 July 2017, https://online.law.tulane.edu/articles/history-of-law-the-fourteenth-amendment#:%7E:text=The%20Civil%20War%20ended%20on%20May%209%2C%201865.&text=Some%20southern%20states%20began%20actively,well%20as%20protect%20civil%20rights. Accessed 8 May 2021.
U.S, Senate. “U.S. Senate: Landmark Legislation: Civil Rights Act of 1875.” United States Senate, 2020, https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/common/generic/CivilRightsAct1875.htm. Accessed 8 May 2021.
U.S Department, N/A. “Legal Highlight: The Civil Rights Act of 1964.” U.S Department of Labor, 2019, https://www.dol.gov/agencies/oasam/civil-rights-center/statutes/civil-rights-act-of-1964#:~:text=The%20Civil%20Rights%20Act%20of%201964%20prohibits%20discrimination%20on%20the,hiring%2C%20promoting%2C%20and%20firing. Accessed 09 May 2021.
US Law, N/A. “Wilfred Keyes et al., Plaintiffs-appellees, v. School District No. 1, Denver, Colorado.” Justia, 2018, https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/appellate-courts/F2/445/990/17006/. Accessed 10 May 2021.
Virginia, N/A. “The Closing of Prince Edward County’s Schools.” Virginia Museum of History and Culture, 2018, https://virginiahistory.org/learn/historical-book/chapter/closing-prince-edward-countys-schools. Accessed 09 May 2021.Winter, Greg. “Schools Resegregate, Study Finds.” The New York Times, 2003, https://www.nytimes.com/2003/01/21/us/schools-resegregate-study-finds.html. Accessed 10 May 2021.